The initial that integrated the fresh health top-notch ingredients, gender, degree and you may an adjustable denoting health updates (overweight/obesity=Bmi Z-rating ?+1)

Every schools had been categorized of the Chilean Ministry away from Training on around three membership, particularly reasonable-reaching schools, mid-finding universities and highest-finding schools, established this new overall performance of their children in most SIMCE evaluation ( 32 ) .

Anthropometric measurements and you will nutritional standing

Standardized procedures were used to measure students' weight to the nearest 0·1 kg, using a Seca scale (SECA, Hamburg, Germany), and height to the nearest 0·1 cm, using a Holtain stadiometer. All instruments were verified before measuring each participant ( Reference Gibson 33 ) . BMI (kg/m 2 ) and height-for-age were evaluated, and Z-scores were obtained according to the references of the Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics (USA) ( Reference Kuczmarski, Ogden and Guo 34 ) .

Nutritional status was defined as follows: underweight, BMI Z-score

Socio-monetary condition

Socio-monetary reputation (SES) is actually measured using a size according to Graffar's altered method and therefore was adapted to help you Chilean metropolitan and you will outlying communities ( Site Alvarez, Muzzo and Ivaple into four socio-financial groups: 1=large (0·step 3 %); 2=mid–large (14·7 %); 3=center (38·step 3 %); 4=mid–lowest (45·6 %); and 5=reduced (1·step one %). Although not, in our investigation i combined this type of five classes towards three: highest (1+2), middle (3) and you can lower (4+5) SES.

Mathematical analysis

Statistical analysis included performing ? 2 tests to compare categorical variables, and ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for comparison of continuous variables. After performing bivariate analyses with each potential confounding variable, including sex, grade, nutritional status, SES and school's performance, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between the nutritional quality of snacks at school (exposure) and individual academic performance in Mathematics and Language (outcome). In each case, the probability of passing the test was estimated using three models. In the second model, SES was added. Finally, a fully adjusted model contained all mentioned covariates with the addition of a variable denoting the school's academic performance. Because the variable school's performance was partly derived from the outcome variables, this adjustment may cause underestimation of the association, so we included models with and without adjustment for school's performance. A P value of <0·05 denoted statistical significance. Data were processed using the statistical software package Stata SE for Windows version 12·0.


The decide to try was developed upwards regarding thirteen·step 1 ( sd dos·3) year-old male (52 %) and you can women (48 %) teens off low (44·step 3 %), middle (39·six %) and you will large (step one6·step 1 %) SES. They went to 5th (51·9 %) and 9th (48·step 1 %) stages in public places (34·8 %), partly paid (57·8 %) and personal schools (7·cuatro %) from the Santiago Metropolitan Part. For nutritional updates, forty-five % off professionals was basically heavy or overweight. Nearly half of the students (48 %) attended high-finding universities, while 31 % and you may 23 % attended mid- and you can lower-gaining colleges, respectively.

From the shot, 56 % off children claimed usage of issues at the treat big date which were filled up with lbs, sugar, sodium and energy. Thirty-half a dozen % was indeed considered having bad-to-reasonable snacking, while just 8 % was indeed thought to consume compliment issues in the snack go out from the school. Desk step one has got the detailed statistics of your sample. Average values from results inside Vocabulary and you may Mathematics were notably minichat desktop ong individuals with lower nutritional quality of dishes at school (P=0·01). The express regarding college students sipping unhealthy delicacies in school try significantly high one of 9th graders (59 %; P=0·040), youngsters probably reasonable-gaining schools (61 %; P=0·036), and additionally certainly underweight and you will normal-lbs players (69 % and you can 62 %, respectively; P=0·006).